sIn the broadest sense, the term gum disease, or periodontal disease, describes bacterial growth and production of factors that gradually destroy the tissue surrounding and supporting the teeth. "Periodontal" means "around the tooth." Gum disease begins with plaque, which is always forming on your teeth, without you even knowing it. If the plaque is not removed on a daily basis it will form tartar (also called calculus) which is the breeding ground for the germs which cause gum disease.
Anyone at any age is susceptible to gum disease. You can lose your teeth from gum disease because this disease attacks the gums as well as the bone which are the foundation in which your teeth rest. Your teeth become loose and eventually fall out as the bone literally dissolves away from around your teeth.
Gum diseases are classified according to the severity of the disease. The two major stages are gingivitis and periodontitis. Gingivitis is a milder and reversible form of gum disease that only affects the gums. Gingivitis may lead to more serious destructive forms of gum disease called periodontitis
Gingivitis is inflammation of the gum tissue. The gums are irritated and swollen due to a plaque or calculus (tartar) buildup along the gum-line. The gums may be sore, bleed easily and appear puffy, soft and swollen. No bone structure is lost around the teeth at this stage of gum disease.
Blood on the toothbrush or dental floss is one of the earliest and most common signs of gingivitis. Your gums should never bleed while brushing or flossing. The good news about gingivitis is that it is preventable and reversible through good brushing and flossing techniques (or other dental tooth cleansing). On the other hand, if oral hygiene habits are poor, gingivitis may progress to periodontitis.
Periodontitis results from the progression of gingivitis, involving inflammation and infection of the ligaments and bones that support the teeth. Periodontitis occurs when inflammation or infection of the gums is untreated or treatment is delayed. Infection and inflammation spreads from the gums to the ligaments and bone that support the teeth. Loss of support causes the teeth to become loose and eventually fall out. Periodontitis is irreversible but you can stop its progression through good oral hygiene and visiting your dentist.
Causes & Signs of Gum Disease
Preventing Gum Disease
Complications & Treatment of Gum Disease
A chronic inflammatory disease of the gingiva (gums) results in damages of gingival connective tissues, periodontal ligaments, and bone in alveola. Iinflammation, clinically speaking, is seen as redness, swelling, and bleeding upon probing. Butt at molecular and cellular levels, the inflammatory process is defined by cellular infiltrates and the release of a variety of cytokines.
Gingivitis is an infection that is an early sign of a serious gum disease. It develops when plaque builds up in between the teeth and gums. Plaque is a layer that sticks to your teeth coming from drinks and food, bacteria or germs and mucus. Over time these can build up can lead to infection of the gums. The gums often do not hurt with gingivitis, so it is important to have a gum check from dentists. Treatment as early as possible is very important. People who do not have good oral hygiene by brushing or flossing their teeth often are prone to gingivitis. If not treated properly, the gum infection will happen again and may cause serious gum disease or tooth loss. The major provoking factor that invokes inflammation of gum tissues is the presence of bacterial biofilm or dental plaque on the teeth or gum/gingival interfaces.
Our mouths are full of different forms of bacteria. The food we eat makes it favourable for the bacteria to survive and reproduce rapidly in our mouth. These bacteria, together with mucus and other particles, regularly form a sticky, colourless "plaque" on our teeth. Cleaning the teeth through brushing and flossing help get rid of plaque. However, plaque that is not removed can eventually harden and form bacteria-harbouring matter called "tartar". Tartar sticks to teeth that ordinary brushing can't clean. These tartar can only be removed by a professional dentist or dental hygienist.
Flap Surgery. A periodontist may perform a "flap surgery" to clean tartar deposits in deep pockets of the teeth or to reduce the periodontal pockets to make it easier to keep the pockets clean and avoid tartars from forming. Flap surgery is only necessary if inflammation and deep pockets persists following medications and treatments of deep cleaning. Flap surgery involves lifting back the patient's gums and removing all the tartar. Afterwards, the gums will be sutured back in its original place so that the tissue fits well around the tooth again.
Tissue and Bone Grafts. Aside from flap surgery, a periodontist may also recommend bone or tissue grafts. Grafting is a process to replace or encourage new bone or gum tissue growth previously destroyed by periodontitis. A technique called guided tissue regeneration can be done with bone grafting. This process involves a small piece of mesh-like fabric to be inserted in between the bone and gum tissues. This will keep the gum tissue from growing into the area wherein the bone should be growing, allowing the bone and connective tissue to regrow. More info about Dental Surgery
See your dentist if you have any signs. Your dentist will clean and remove plaque from your teeth. To prevent gum infections, brush and floss your teeth at least two times each day to remove plaque before it builds up. See your dentist every six months to have your teeth checked and cleaned.
Please see reduced dental fees for cost of gingivitis treatment. Each state has its own rates for gingivitis treatment. Please review the appropriate dental cost or contact a local dentist for more information.
Please see our dentists and dental clinics list to find participating dentists providing gingivitis treatment services in Sydney, Melbourne, Brisbane, Perth, Adelaide, Canberra and other Cities. For best gingivitis treatment please make sure you have all the information about gingivitis and understood the process of getting the service from a dentist.
Source: Periodontal - Gingivitis (http://www.nidcr.nih.gov/NR/rdonlyres/1B30D2C4-4DBD-4400-B993-A18B58F22A97/0/Periodontal_spreads_Final.pdf)